What is The Lord's Supper?
The supper of our Lord Jesus was instituted by Him the same night He was betrayed, to be observed in His churches until the end of the world as a perpetual remembrance [of Him] and to show forth the sacrifice of Himself in His death. It was also instituted to confirm the faith of believers in all the benefits in Christ's death, for their spiritual nourishment and growth in Him, for their further engagement in and commitment to all the duties they owe Him, and to be a bond and pledge of their fellowship with Him and with one another.
In this ordinance Christ is not offered up to His Father, nor is any real sacrifice made for remission of sin of the living or the dead. It is only a memorial of that one offering up of Christ by Himself upon the cross once for all. It is also a spiritual offering of all possible praise to God for [Christ's work]. So the Roman Catholic sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is utterly abominable and defamatory of Christ's own sacrifice which is the only propitiation for all the sins of the elect.
In this ordinance the Lord Jesus has appointed His ministers to pray and to bless the elements of bread and wine (so setting them apart from a common to a holy use), and to take and break the bread, then to take the cup, and to give both to the communicants, participating also themselves.
The denial of the cup to the people, worshipping the elements, lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, and reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary to the nature of this ordinance and to the institution of Christ.
The outward elements in this ordinance, when correctly set apart for the use ordained by Christ, bear such a strong relation to the Lord crucified, that they are sometimes truly, but figuratively, called by the name of the things they represent, namely, the body and blood of Christ. However, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine as they were before.
The doctrine commonly called transubstantiation, which maintains that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the substance of Christ's body and blood when consecrated by a priest or by some other way, is repugnant not only to Scripture, but even to common sense and reason. It overthrows the nature of the ordinance, and has been and is the cause of numerous superstitions and gross idolatries.
Worthy recipients, when outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this ordinance, also receive them inwardly by faith, truly and in fact, not as flesh and body but spiritually. In so doing they feed upon Christ crucified, and receive all the benefits of his death. The body and blood of Christ are not present physically, but spiritually by the faith of believers in the ordinance, just as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.
All ignorant and ungodly people who are unfit to enjoy fellowship with Christ, are equally unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Him, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted to them while they remain as they are. Indeed, whoever participates unworthily is guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judgment on themselves.